Treat Pediatric Eye Conditions

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Differential Diagnosis Red Eye
Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Conjunctivitis (bacterial, Viral Or Allergic)
Traumatic Injury (e.g., Corneal Abrasion)
Corneal Infection/keratitis
Foreign Body
Glaucoma
Uveitis (iritis)( Anterior)
Preseptal And  Orbital Cellulitis

Danger Features- Red Eye
Severe Pain (unilateral)
Photophobia
Reduced Visual Acuity/ Persistent Blurring
Reduced Ocular Movement
Ciliary Flush
Irregular Corneal Light Reflection

Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Moderate -severe Bacterial Conjunctivitis In Newborns <28 Days Of Age
This Condition Must Be Differentiated From The More Common Mild Conjunctivitis
Causes
- Generally Acquired From The Maternal Genital Tract
- Bacterial Organisms Include Chlamydia And Neisseria Gonorrhea
- Chlamydial Infection Is The More Common Cause Of Neonatal Conjunctivitis
- Less Commonly, Hemophilus Strains, Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus Pneumoniae And Other Gram-negative Organisms May Be Involved

Nasolacrimal Ductobstruction –dacryostenosis
A Congenital Disorder Of The Lacrimal System Characterized By Blockage Of The Nasolacrimal Duct
Results In Excessive Tearing And Mucopurulent Discharge From The Affected Eye
The Condition Occurs In Approximately 2% To 6% Of Newborns
Onset Is Usually Within The First Few Weeks Of Life

Strabismus
An Abnormality In The Alignment Of The Eyes
The Classification Of Strabismus Is Complex
On An Etiologic Basis, It May Be Paralytic Or Non-paralytic
It Can Also Be Classified As Congenital Or Acquired, Intermittent Or Constant, Or Convergent Or Divergent

Pathogenesis
-when The Eyes Are Positioned So That An Image Falls On The Fovea (the Area Of Best Visual Acuity) Of One Eye, But Not The Other, The Second Eye Will Deviate So That The Image Falls On It’s Fovea As Well
-this Deviation May Be Up, Down, In Or Out And Results In Strabismus.

Causes  Of Strabismus
Paralytic
-weakness Or Paralysis Of One Or More Ocular Muscles
-deviation Is Asymmetric
-congenital: Secondary To Developmental Defect In Muscle Or Nerves Or To Congenital Infection
-acquired: Due To Extraocular Nerve Palsies; Indicates A Serious Underlying Problem (e.g., Fracture Of Facial Bone, Cns Tumor, Neurodegenerative Disease, Myasthenia Gravis, Cns Infection)

Non-paralytic
-most Common Type Of Strabismus
-extraocular Muscles And The Nerves That Control Them Are Normal
-occasionally, This Form May Be Secondary To Underlying Ocular Or Visual Defects Such As Cataracts Or Refraction Errors
-overall, Seen In 3% Of Children

Eye Injuries
Non Accidental Trauma/shaken Baby Syndrome
-hallmark Of Diagnosis Is Retinal Hemorrhage
-presence And Severity Of Hemorrhages Correlates Well With Level Of Brain Injury
-history Of Injury Often Vague And Not Well Correlated With Extent Of Injuries
-other Findings Associated With Non- Accidental Injury Include Ecchymosis Of Lids, Sub-conjunctival Hemorrhages, And Hyphema

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