Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Acid-Base Imbalances
pH< 7.35 acidosis
pH > 7.45 alkalosis
The body response to acid-base imbalance is called compensation
May be complete if brought back within normal limits
Partial compensation if range is still outside norms.

Compensation
If underlying problem is metabolic,  hyperventilation or hypoventilation can help : respiratory compensation.
If problem is respiratory, renal mechanisms can bring about metabolic compensation.

Acidosis
Principal effect of acidosis is depression of the CNS through ↓  in synaptic transmission.
Generalized weakness
Deranged CNS function the greatest threat
Severe acidosis causes -Disorientation,coma ,death

Alkalosis
Alkalosis causes over excitability of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Numbness
Lightheadedness
It can cause :Nervousness,muscle spasms or tetany ,Convulsions ,Loss of consciousness,Death

Respiratory Acidosis
Carbonic acid excess caused by blood levels of CO2 above 45 mm Hg.
Hypercapnia – high levels of CO2 in blood
Chronic conditions:
 Depression of  respiratory center in brain that controls breathing rate – drugs or head trauma
 Paralysis of respiratory or chest muscles
 Emphysema
Acute conditons:
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Pulmonary edema
Pneumothorax

Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis
Breathlessness
Restlessness
Lethargy and disorientation
Tremors, convulsions, coma
Respiratory rate rapid, then gradually depressed
Skin warm and flushed due to vasodilation caused by excess CO2

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