pH< 7.35 acidosis
pH > 7.45 alkalosis
The body response to acid-base imbalance is called compensation
May be complete if brought back within normal limits
Partial compensation if range is still outside norms.
If underlying problem is metabolic, hyperventilation or hypoventilation can help : respiratory compensation.
If problem is respiratory, renal mechanisms can bring about metabolic compensation.
Principal effect of acidosis is depression of the CNS through ↓ in synaptic transmission.
Deranged CNS function the greatest threat
Severe acidosis causes -Disorientation,coma ,death
Alkalosis causes over excitability of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
It can cause :Nervousness,muscle spasms or tetany ,Convulsions ,Loss of consciousness,Death
Carbonic acid excess caused by blood levels of CO2 above 45 mm Hg.
Hypercapnia – high levels of CO2 in blood
Depression of respiratory center in brain that controls breathing rate – drugs or head trauma
Paralysis of respiratory or chest muscles
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis
Lethargy and disorientation
Tremors, convulsions, coma
Respiratory rate rapid, then gradually depressed
Skin warm and flushed due to vasodilation caused by excess CO2