Sexually Transmitted Infections

Posted by e-Medical PPT
The name of this group of diseases was changed from “venereal diseases” to “sexually transmitted diseases” or “STDs”
Now many persons call them “sexually transmitted infections or “STIs.”
A STI is an infection that is transmitted through sexually activity
Most neglected area of healthcare in developing countries (vaginitis, cervicitis and PID)
Major cause of infertility in both females and males

Importance of STDs
Account for up to 40% of gynecologic hospital admissions
Cofactor in HIV and HBV transmission
STDs are almost as common as malaria: 333 million new cases each year

The consequences of untreated STDs
Ectopic pregnancy (7-10 times increased risk in women with history of PID)
Increased risk of cervical cancer
Chronic abdominal pain (18% of females with a history of PID)

Infertility:
20-40% of males with untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea
55-85% of females with untreated PID
(8-20% of females with untreated gonorrhea develop PID)
Increased risk of HBV and HIV/AIDS transmission

Infants can:
Be infected at birth with blinding eye infections and pneumonia (chlamydia, genital herpes and gonorrhea)
Suffer central nervous system damage or die (syphilis or genital herpes) as a result of STDs

Bacterial STDs
Chlamydia
Most common STD
Females outnumber males 6 to 1
Cervix is site of infection
Most women are asymptomatic until the pain and fever from PID occur
If symptomatic - discharge, painful urination, lower abdominal pain, bleeding, fever and nausea
Complications include; cervicitis, infertility, chronic pain, salpingitis, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, reactive arthritis.
20-40% of women infected with chlamydia will develop PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
9% ectopic pregnancy
20% will become infertile
18% chronic pelvic pain

Gonorrhea
Females: gonococcal cervicitis_slight yellow-green discharge or vulvar irritation
Male:gonococcal urethritis_odorous cloudy discharge; urinary burning; swollen, tender lymph glands in groin

Mucus membranes affected include: cervix, anus, throat, eyes
Bacteria neisseria gonorrhea organism attacks cervix as first site of infection
Symptoms are thick discharge, burning urination, and severe menstrual or abdominal cramps
10 to 40 percent women develop PID
Untreated gonorrhea can result in arthritis, dermatitis, and tenosynivitis
Consequences:
FEMALE : PID with sterility; ectopic pregnancy, severe pelvic pain; infant conjunctivitis.
MALE: prostate abscesses with fever, difficult urination; gonococcal epididymitis with ? sterility...

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