Most defects of the grest arteries arise as a result of persistence of aortic arches that normally should regress or regression of arches that normally shouldn't.
Aberrant subclavian artery; with regression of the right aortic arch 4 and the right dorsal aorta, the right subclavian artery has an abnormal origin on the left side, just below the left subclavian artery. To supply blood to the right arm, this forces the right subclavian artery to cross the midline behind the trachea and esophagus, which may constrict these organs, although usually with no clinical symptoms.
A double aortic arch; occurs with the development of an abnormal right aortic arch in addition to the left aortic arch, forming a vascular ring around the trachea and esophagus, which usually causes dificutly breathing and swallowing. Occasionally, the entire right dorsal aorta abnormally persists and the left dorsal aorta regresses in which case the right aorta will have to arch across from the esophagus causing difficulty breathing or swallowing.
Patent ductus arteriosus
Coarctation of the aorta