Arthritis is a disease in a person’s joints that cause swelling and pain where the bones meet each other, resulting in stiffness and loss of motion Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis is arthritis in children under 16 years old with inflammation lasting at least 6 weeks.Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is different from adult rheumatoid arthritis Kids have different symptoms The damage to bones is different
How Is Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Different From Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis?:
Main Difference: Many people with JRA outgrow the illness, while adults usually have lifelong symptoms. Studies estimate that by adulthood, JRA symptoms disappear in more than half of all affected children. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis in an adult, JRA may affect bone development as well as the child's growth.
Who Gets JRA?:
About 1 child in every 1,000 develops some type of juvenile arthritis. Approximately 75,000 children in the U.S. Can affect children at any age, but uncommon in the first six months of life
Why Do Kids Get JRA?:
Cause is unknown Research suggests a genetic predisposition Triggered by an environmental factor, such as a virus JRA is an autoimmune disease Immune system mistakes healthy cells for harmful ones. Body releases chemicals to fight healthy cells causing pain and swelling.
Types of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis:
There are three types JRA. Pauciarticular: fewer than five joints are affected. Usually knees and large joints. Polyarticular: affects five or more joints. Joints on both sides of body are affected. Smaller joints like hands or toes. Systemic JRA: affects many parts of the body. Heart, lungs and liver could be affected as well.
Signs/symptoms Limping Stiffness when awakening Reluctance to use an arm or leg Reduced activity level Persistent fever Joint swelling
Pathophysiology Chronic inflammation of synovium is characterized by B lymphocyte infiltration and expansion. Macrophages and T-cell invasion are associated with the release of cytokines, which evoke synoviocyte proliferation.2001 study by Scola et al : Found synovium to contain m-RNA for vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1, and their respective receptors This suggests that induction of angiogenesis by products of lymphocytic infiltration may be involved in persistence of disease. The resulting thickened pannus causes joint destruction. In many patients, predominance of cytokines associated with tissue destruction, including interleukin-6 and TNF, suggests the possibility of improved responsiveness to specific biologic agents targeting these factors.
How Is JRA Diagnosed?:
Complete health history Physical examination to look for joint inflammation, rashes, nodules, signs of internal organ inflammation and/or eye problems Laboratory tests to help rule out other diseases Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Hemoglobin and blood count testing Urinalysis X-rays Tests of joint, blood and tissue fluids to check for infections or inflammation
Control symptoms, prevent joint damage, and maintain function 1. Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) Motrin or Advil 2. Disease Modifying Drugs (DMARDS) Hydroxychloroquine: Plaquenil Sulfasalazine: Azulfidine Methotrexate: Rheumatrex