Hypercapnia (↑ PaCO2)
Respiratory failure manifesting as hypercapnia is known as ventilatory failure.
Signs of ventilatory failure:
 Tachypnea
 Acidemia
 Increased pulsus paradoxus
 Hyperinflation
 Somnolence / Decreased mental status

Hypercapnia - Etiologies
↑VCO2  (Hypermetabolism)
Fever
Seizures
Sepsis
Hyperalimentation

↓VT
Skeletal muscle weakness
Impaired neuromuscular transmission
↓ Lung / chest wall compliance
Airway obstruction
    COPD
    Asthma
    Obstructive sleep apnea

↓RR (Central hypoventilation)
Drugs
Brainstem lesions
Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome

↑VD
Excessive PEEP

Hypercapnia - Treatment
Treat the underlying process
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
Intubation and mechanical ventilation

Hypoxia (↓ PaO2)
Respiratory failure manifesting as hypoxia is known as oxygentation failure.
Signs of oxygenation failure:
 Tachypnea
 Alkalemia (acidemia if concurrent ventilatory failure)
 Increased pulsus paradoxus
 Cyanosis
 Agitation --->Somnolence...

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