Joint stiffness
The symptom of pain on moving a joint, and loss of range of motion
All above conditions are made worse by
Prolonged immobilization
Position of joint, why?
Cause if they were held in which ligaments are at their shortest, no exercise will succeed in stretching these tissue and restoring the lost movement completely.

Functional bracing (orthopaedic brace) used to immobilize a joint or body segment, restrict movement in a given direction.
In stiff joints, prolonged and patient physiotherapy can work wonder.

Heterotopic ossification
is the process by which bone tissue forms outside of the skeleton
Clinical features
Local swellings

X-ray will appear normal at first but Bone scan shows increased activity
 next 2-3 weeks
  pain gradually subside
  limited joint movements.
  X-ray - fluffy calcification in soft tissue
By 8 weeks  - Palpable bony mass that clearly defined in x-ray

Muscle contracture
the muscle and its tendons shorten, resulting in reduced flexibility.
Following arterial injury or compartment syndrome, the patient may develop ischaemic contracture or
  (volkman’s ischaemic contracture)
Nerve injury by ischaemia sometimes recover.

Tendon rapture
After fracture.
 treatment is direct suture.
Tendon transfer of extensor indicis proprius to distal stump of the ruptured thumb tendon.
No treatment usually in late rupture of the long head of biceps after fractured head of femur.

Nerve entrapment
nerve becomes trapped or pinched due to some physiological abnormalities.
Numbness (parasthesia)
Loss of power
Muscle wasting in distribution of the affected nerve.
Claw hand in ulnar nerve entrapment

Complex regional pain syndrome
(CRPS) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by severe pain, swelling and changes in the skin
International Association for the Study of Pain has divided CRPS into two types based on the presence of nerve lesion following the injury.
Type I, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), Sudeck's atrophy, reflex neurovascular dystrophy (RND) or algoneurodystrophy, does not have demonstrable nerve lesions.
Type II, also known as causalgia, has evidence of obvious nerve damage.
The cause of this syndrome is currently unknown.

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