IUGR almost always leads to Low birth weight (LBW). This is a baby with a birth weight of less than 2.5kg.
Less commonly known as global growth restriction.
The baby has grown slowly through out the duration of the pregnancy and was thus affected from a very early stage.
The head circumference of such a new born is proportionate to the rest of the baby.
Embryo /Foetus has grown normally during the first and second trimester but encounters difficulties in the third.
Disparity in the length and head circumference compared to the birth weight.
Head and brain are normal in size but the abdomen is smaller.
Maternal risk Factors for IUGR
Has had a previous pregnancy which resulted in IUGR.
Drugs: Warfarin, Phenytoin and Steroids
Poor weight gain and malnutrition in pregnancy. Tied into social deprivation.
Used substances (Tobacco, Narcotics and Alcohol) resulting in birth defects.
Antibody problem (SLE ,APAS)
Cyanotic heart diseases.
Diabetic vascular lesions.
Chronic kidney diseases.
Chronic infections-Malaria, UTI TB, Genital infections...