Infectious diseases and sepsis

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Infectious diseases are the most common group of diseases in the world.
Pandemic infectious diseases can involve a lot of persons including several countries.
Some very dangerous infectious diseases occur as bacterial weapon,For example smallpox, plague, anthrax
Infectious diseases are caused by mycoplasma, rickettsia, viruses, bacteria,fungi, protozoa, parasites.

Virulence is termed extent of  host damage by microorganisms.
Toxicity is termed ability for production and secretion of various toxins.
Invasiveness is termed the microorganism ability to get over host barrier mechanisms,reproduce and spread ability.

Reactions of macroorganism (host) in infectious diseases occur as follow:
Adjustment reactions
Compensative reactions
Defense reactions

Adjustment reactions are conditioned by environment (external factors) when host can not change impaired living conditions.
Compensative reactions are similar to adjustment reactions but connected with host changes.
Defense reactions are an biologic defense of the host.

Infective dose means for pathological origin:
Abscess origin requires 105 coccus
Penetration in blood circulation requires 107 
Sepsis develops with 109 coccus

Sepsis is general severe infectious disease,
caused by permanent or recurrent microorganism admission into blood from nidus of infection.
Sepsis is a polyetiologic, non contagious disease characterized by generalized infection, acyclic clinical course, and special significance of changed reactivity.

Difference from other infectious diseases:
1 polyetiologic causes: pyogenic bacteria,fungi;
2 non contagious,
3 non reproduce in experiment;
4 clinical course is stereotype, it is no depends on etiologic agent;
5 the most common sign of generalized infection
  is metastatic foci at a distance from primary focus;
6 cyclic course is absent;
7 incubation period is absent;
8 immunity is absent;
9 hyperergic reaction is predominance

Clinical definition of sepsis is as follow:
System  inflammatory reaction syndrome
(SIRS) is the response to invasion of difference microorganisms.
It is characterized by two or more SIRS signs.
Hyperthermia, Tachycardia, Tachypnoe, Leukocytosis.

Gram positive microorganisms are infective agent for septicopyemia.
Gram negative microorganisms are infective agent for septicemia or septic shock

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