Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects ~1% of newborn infants and
accounts for ~10% of all congenital anomalies. Factors that ? risk for CHD include
maternal diabetes mellitus, familial presence of genetic syndromes (e.g., Noonan
syndrome), history of previous infant with CHD, and genetic factors that are just now
starting to be identified. The most common types of CHD are ventricular septal defect,
pulmonic stenosis, endocardial cushion defect, atrial septal defect and tetralogy of Fallot.
Although some infants with CHD do not have signs or symptoms in the newborn period,
others will need immediate intervention because of the severity of their disease. The
following discussion of CHD is not exhaustive. It is intended as a guide to the initial
management (diagnostic and therapeutic) of infants presenting with clinical findings
indicative or suggestive of CHD.