Blood disorders are the second most common cause of stroke in children. Several blood disorders associated with stroke in children include:
*Sickle cell disease is the most common cause of stroke in African American children. The recurrence risk for this group is very high.
*Coagulation disorders can lead to a tendency to clot or hemorrhage. The risk of stroke seems to be greatest among children who have a combination of genetic factors. Multiple factors are associated with a heightened risk of thrombosis and recurrence.
Vascular Disorders - 23% of children with arterial ischemic stroke in one study
*Moya-Moya disease is a chronic non-inflammatory occlusive intracranial vasculopathy of unknown cause.
*Arterial dissection, a common cause of stroke in children, is usually due to trauma.
Causes of Hemorrhagic Stroke in a child
Vascular malformations, blood disorders and malignancy have been identified as risk factors in children who have a hemorrhagic stroke.
*Vascular malformations, including arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), aneurysms, and cavernous malformations are the most common risk factors for children with hemorrhagic stroke.
*Blood disorders, including thrombocytopenia, leukemia, SCD, and coagulopathies have been identified in some children with hemorrhagic stroke. Acquired thrombocytopenia and coagulopathies were the most common blood risk factors in one report.
*Intracranial tumors, including medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, have been identified in cases of children who have a hemorrhagic stroke.