Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture.In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is deteriorating, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered.
Conventional radiography is useful, both by itself and in conjunction with CT or MRI, for detecting complications of osteopenia (reduced bone mass; pre-osteoporosis), such as fractures; for differential diagnosis of osteopenia; or for follow-up examinations in specific clinical settings, such as soft tissue calcifications, secondary hyperparathyroidism, or osteomalacia in renal osteodystrophy. However, radiography is relatively insensitive to detection of early disease and requires a substantial amount of bone loss (about 30%) to be apparent on x-ray images.The main radiographic features of generalized osteoporosis are cortical thinning and increased radiolucency.
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium.Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term osteomalacia is often restricted to the milder, adult form of the disease.The most common cause of the disease is a deficiency in vitamin D, which is normally obtained from the diet and/or sunlight exposure.Loosers zones or Milkmans pseudofractures are strongly suggestive but not diagnostic of osteomalacia.
Osteosclerosis is an abnormal hardening or increased density of bone on radiographs.Increased radiodensity of bone that may occur with various conditions including renal osteodystrophy, osteopetrosis and pyknodysostosis.
Renal osteodystrophy is a general term used to describe the bony changes associated with chronic renal disease.
Osteopetrosis is a thymic defect which results in generalised osteosclerosis with dense, thick, brittle bones.It is most marked with generalized osteosclerosis, cortical thickening, loss of normal cortico-cancellous differentiation and obliteration of normal trabecular pattern.
Pyknodysostosis is a dysplasia manifest clinically by dwarfism, increased bone fragility and sclerotic bones.It is a syndrome chararacterized by osteosclerosis, short stature, short broad hands

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