Head Trauma and Intra Cranial Pressure

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull.Head injuries may be closed or open.A penetrating head injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and breaches the dura mater. Brain injuries may be diffuse, occurring over a wide area, or focal, located in a small, specific area. Brain injury can be at the site of impact, but can also be at the opposite side of the skull due to a contrecoup effect (the impact to the head can cause the brain to move within the skull, causing the brain to impact the interior of the skull opposite the head-impact).
Diffuse axonal injury usually occurs as the result of an acceleration or deceleration motion, not necessarily an impact. Axons are stretched and damaged when parts of the brain of differing density slide over one another.
Intra-axial hemorrhage is cerebral hemorrhage.This category includes intraparenchymal hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage.Intra-axial hemorrhages are more dangerous and harder to treat than extra-axial bleeds.
Extra-axial hemorrhage, bleeding that occurs within the skull but outside of the brain tissue, falls into three subtypes:Epidural hemorrhage,Subdural hemorrhage and Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A non-contrast CT of the head should be performed immediately in all those who have suffered a moderate or severe head injury.Most head injuries are of a benign nature and require no treatment beyond analgesics and close monitoring for potential complications such as intracranial bleeding. If the brain has been severely damaged by trauma, neurosurgical evaluation may be useful. Treatments may involve controlling elevated intracranial pressure.

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