Diffuse axonal injury usually occurs as the result of an acceleration or deceleration motion, not necessarily an impact. Axons are stretched and damaged when parts of the brain of differing density slide over one another.
Intra-axial hemorrhage is cerebral hemorrhage.This category includes intraparenchymal hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage.Intra-axial hemorrhages are more dangerous and harder to treat than extra-axial bleeds.
Extra-axial hemorrhage, bleeding that occurs within the skull but outside of the brain tissue, falls into three subtypes:Epidural hemorrhage,Subdural hemorrhage and Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A non-contrast CT of the head should be performed immediately in all those who have suffered a moderate or severe head injury.Most head injuries are of a benign nature and require no treatment beyond analgesics and close monitoring for potential complications such as intracranial bleeding. If the brain has been severely damaged by trauma, neurosurgical evaluation may be useful. Treatments may involve controlling elevated intracranial pressure.