Urinary Incontinence

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Urinary incontinence is any involuntary leakage of urine.Continence and micturition involve a balance between urethral closure and detrusor muscle activity. Urethral pressure normally exceeds bladder pressure, resulting in urine remaining in the bladder. The proximal urethra and bladder are both within the pelvis. Intraabdominal pressure increases (from coughing and sneezing) are transmitted to both urethra and bladder equally, leaving the pressure differential unchanged, resulting in continence. Normal voiding is the result of changes in both of these pressure factors: urethral pressure falls and bladder pressure rises.
Types
    * Stress incontinence, also known as effort incontinence, is due essentially to insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles.

    * Urge incontinence is involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate.

    * Overflow incontinence: Sometimes people find that they cannot stop their bladders from constantly dribbling, or continuing to dribble for some time after they have passed urine. It is as if their bladders were like a constantly overflowing pan, hence the general name overflow incontinence.

Causes
    * Polyuria - uncontrolled diabetes mellitus,central diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
    * Caffeine stimulates the bladder.
    * Enlarged prostate is the most common cause of incontinence in men after the age of 40; sometimes prostate cancer may also be associated with urinary incontinence. Moreover drugs or radiation used to treat prostate cancer can also cause incontinence.
    * Brain disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, strokes and spinal cord injury can all interfere with nerve function of the bladder.


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