Ocular Trauma

Posted by e-Medical PPT
A blowout fracture is a fracture of the walls or floor of the orbit. Intraorbital material may be pushed out into one of the paranasal sinuses. This is most commonly caused by blunt trauma of the head, generally personal altercations.
Orbital floor fractures can increase volume of the orbit with resultant hypoglobus and enophthalmos.The inferior rectus muscle or orbital tissue can become entrapped within the fracture, resulting in tethering and restriction of gaze and diplopia.
Significant orbital emphysema from a communication with the maxillary sinus can occur. Orbital hemorrhage is possible with risk of a compressive optic neuropathy.
The globe can be ruptured or suffer less severe forms of trauma, resulting in hyphema, retinal edema, and profound visual loss.
Periorbital ecchymosis and edema accompanied by pain are obvious external signs and symptoms, respectively. Enophthalmos is possible but initially can be obscured by surrounding tissue swelling. This swelling can restrict ocular motility, giving the impression of soft tissue or inferior rectus entrapment. Retrobulbar or peribulbar hemorrhage may be heralded by proptosis. A bony step-off of the orbital rim and point tenderness are possible during palpation.
Examination of the globe is essential, albeit difficult because of soft tissue edema. Desmarres retractors may be helpful to spread edematous eyelids.
Pupillary dysfunction coupled with decreased visual acuity should alert one to the possibility of a traumatic or compressive optic neuropathy.Ocular misalignment, hypotropia or hypertropia, and limitation of elevation ipsilateral to the fracture are possible. Forced duction testing can differentiate entrapment versus neuromyogenic etiologies of muscle underaction.The supratarsal crease may deepen, along with narrowing of the palpebral fissure stemming from enophthalmos or fibrous tissue contraction. Although the palpebral fissure may in fact narrow, the geometric shape is preserved, since dehiscence or disruption of the canthal tendons is uncommon.


Share Medical Presentations