Compartment Syndromes

Posted by e-Medical PPT
An elevation of the interstitial pressure in a closed osteofascial compartment that results in micrvascular compromise.If left untreated will cause tissue damage.Compartments with relatively noncompliant fascial or osseous structures most commonly are involved ,especially the anterior compartment  of the leg and the volar compartment of the forearm.Compartment syndromes can be classified as :
Acute compartment syndrome (ACS)    or
Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) depending on the cause of increased intra-compartmental pressure and the duration of symptoms
Acute compartment syndrome can develop anywhere a skeletal muscle is surrounded by a substantial fascia.
ACS  may occur in foot, leg, thigh, buttocks, lumbar paraspinous muscles, hand, forearm, arm and shoulder. 

Etiology of Acute compartment syndrome
Hemorrhage (e.g. due to vascular injury )
Coagulopathy (e.g. hemophilia ,  ASA overdose , thrombolytics , heparin infusion , sickle cell disease or trait )
Muscle edema (e.g. severe exercise , crush injury [trauma,alcohol,or drug-induced]  ,trauma with or without fracture  )
 Surgically related  (e.g. knee arthroscopy , tibial osteotomy without drainage , after epidural anesthesia )
Massive crystalloid infusion
Ruptured Backer’s cyst
Muscle hypertrophy ( androgens )
Rhabdomyolysis
Intracompartmental fluid infusion (interosseosus infusion )
Capillary leak syndrome
Intra-arterial injections of sclerosing agents
Post –ischemic reperfusion


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