Nosocomial Pneumonia

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 after being admitted. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.It is the second most common nosocomial infection (urinary tract infection is the most common) and accounts for 15–20% of the total.It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections and is the primary cause of death in intensive care units.Among the factors contributing to contracting
Nosocomial pneumonia are mechanical ventilation (ventilator-associated pneumonia), old age, decreased filtration of inspired air, intrinsic respiratory, neurologic, or other disease states that result in respiratory tract obstruction, trauma, (abdominal) surgery, medications, diminished lung volumes, or decreased clearance of secretions may diminish the defenses of the lung.
In hospitalised patients who develop respiratory symptoms and fever one should consider the diagnosis. The likelihood increases when upon investigation symptoms are found of respiratory insufficiency, purulent secretions, newly developed infiltrate on the chest X-Ray, and increasing leucocyte count. If pneumonia is suspected material from sputum or tracheal aspirates are sent to the microbiology department for cultures. In case of pleural effusion thoracentesis is performed for examination of pleural fluid. In suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia it has been suggested that bronchoscopy(BAL) is necessary because of the known risks surrounding clinical diagnoses.

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