Massive Hemoptysis

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Hemoptysisis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract. Hemoptysis refers specifically to blood that comes from the respiratory tract. Blood also may come from the nose, the back of the throat, or part of the gastrointestinal tract. When blood originates outside of the respiratory tract, the condition is known as "pseudohemoptysis." Vomiting up blood, medically known as hematemesis, is one type of pseudohemoptysis. Differentiating between hemoptysis and hematemesis is an integral part of diagnosis. Since they involve different parts of the body, treatments and prognose (prospect of recovery) are not the same.
There are many underlying disorders that can cause hemoptysis, ranging from heart problems to trauma to infections to lung disease. Worldwide, tuberculosis is the most common cause of hemoptysis. In industrialized countries, the most common causes are bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and bronchogenic carcinoma.
In patients with AIDS, the most common cause of hemoptysis is pneumonia. In about 15% to 30% of cases, the underlying problem is never found—undiagnosed hemoptysis is commonly referred to as idiopathic hemoptysis.
Classifying hemoptysis as mild or massive (some practitioners classify it as trivial, moderate, or massive) is difficult because the amount of blood is often hard to accurately quantify. Life-threatening, "massive" hemoptysis, which requires immediate medical attention, is differentiated from less severe cases.
Hemoptysis is considered massive, or major, when there is so much blood that it interrupts breathing (generally more than about 200-240 mL, or about 1 cup, in 24 hours). Massive hemoptysis is a medical emergency: the mortality rate for patients with massive hemoptysis can be as high as 75%. Most patients who die from hemoptysis suffer from asphyxiation (lack of oxygen) due to too much blood in the airways.


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