Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a term used to describe one of several diseases in which individuals who have not recently been hospitalized develop an infection of the lungs.CAP is a common illness and can affect people of all ages. CAP often causes problems like difficulty in breathing, fever, chest pains, and a cough. CAP occurs alveoli become filled with fluid and cannot work effectively.
CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death. Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. CAP can be diagnosed by symptoms and physical examination alone, though x-rays, examination of the sputum, and other tests are often used. Individuals with CAP sometimes require treatment in a hospital. CAP is primarily treated with antibiotic medication. Some forms of CAP can be prevented by vaccination.
Symptoms of CAP commonly include:
    * problems breathing
    * coughing that produces greenish or yellow sputum
    * a high fever that may be accompanied with sweating, chills, and uncontrollable shaking
    * sharp or stabbing chest pain
    * rapid, shallow breathing that is often painful
X-rays of the chest, examination of the blood and sputum for infectious microorganisms, and blood tests are commonly used to diagnose individuals with suspected CAP based upon symptoms and physical examination.Chest x-rays and chest computed tomography can reveal areas of opacity which represent consolidation.Blood cultures can be drawn to isolate any bacteria or fungi in the blood stream. Sputum Gram's stain and culture can also reveal the causative microorganism.

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