Endocrine Emergencies

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Hypoglycemia is the medical term for a state produced by a lower than normal level of blood glucose.It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). Effects can range from vaguely "feeling bad" to seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death.
The most common forms of hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin or oral medications. Hypoglycemia is less common in non-diabetic persons, but can occur at any age, from many causes.
Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood.(Normal range: 9–10.5 mg/dL or 2.2–2.6 mmol/L).It can be due to abnormal parathyroid gland function(primary hyperparathyroidism), disorders related to high bone-turnover rates(Paget's disease of the bone,multiple myeloma),vitamin-D metabolic disorders(hypervitaminosis D),Increased intestinal calcium absorption, or decreased renal calcium excretion.
Malignant or critical thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm, is a life-threatening medical emergency in which excessive concentrations of thyroid hormone produce organ dysfunction.Symptoms include thermoregulatory dysfunction (high fever, diaphoresis), neurologic manifestations (seizure, coma, psychosis,hyperreflexia), cardiovascular dysregulation (atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, hypertension, congestive heart failure), respiratory distress and gastrointestinal dysfunction (diarrhea).
Acute adrenal crisis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is not enough cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands.In adrenal crisis, patients need an immediate injection of hydrocortisone through a vein (intravenous) or muscle (intramuscular). You may receive intravenous fluids if you have low blood pressure.You will need to go to the hospital for treatment and monitoring. If infection caused the crisis, you may need antibiotic therapy.

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