Antiparkinsonian Drugs

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Parkinson’s Disease:Disease of the basal ganglia and related neuronal groups + neurotransmitter deficiencies “shaking palsy”
Bradykinesia – slowing down in the initiation and execution of movement
Rigidity – increased muscle tone
Tremor at rest
Impaired postural reflexes

Degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain
Disrupts the balance of:dopamine (DA) – neurotransmitter for normal functioning of the extrapyramidal motor system (control of posture, support, and voluntary motion)
Acetylcholine (Ach) in the basal ganglia
Symptoms do not occur until 80% of the neurons in the substantia nigra are lost

Stages of Parkinson’s Disease
Flexion of affected arm - tremor / leaning toward unaffected side
Slow shuffling gate
Increased difficulty walking – looks for support to prevent falls
Further progression of weakness – assistance with ambulation
Profound disability – may be confined to wheelchair

Drug Therapy
Correcting the imbalance of neurotransmitters within the CNS
Dopaminergic – enhance release or supply of dopamine (DA)
Anticholinergic – antagonize or block the effects of overactive cholinergic neurons in the striatum
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor - Decreases MAO (the degradative enzyme for DA)
Results: DA levels are increased
Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT) Inhibitor
Betablocker
Antihistamine


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