Acute Glomerulonephritis

Posted by e-Medical PPT
Acute nephritic syndrome is the most serious and potentially devastating form of various renal syndromes. Acute glomerulonephritis is characterized by the abrupt onset of hematuria and proteinuria, often accompanied by azotemia (ie, decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal salt and water retention.

Causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN)

In diffuse glomerulonephritis (GN), all of the glomeruli are aggressively attacked, leading to acute renal failure (ARF). Disorders that attack several organs and cause diffuse GN are referred to as secondary causes. Secondary causes of diffuse GN include the following:
    * Cryoglobulinemia
    * Goodpasteur’s syndrome (membranous antiglomerular basement membrane disease)
    * Lupus nephritis
    * Schönlein-Henoch purpura
    * Vasculitis (e.g., Wegener's granulomatosis, periarteritis nodosa)
Primary diseases that solely affect the kidneys and cause AGN, include the following:
    * Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA nephropathy, Berger’s disease)
    * Membranoproliferative nephritis (type of kidney inflammation)
    * Postinfectious GN (GN that results after an infection)
Patients with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) have an active urinary sediment. This means that signs of active kidney inflammation can be detected when the urine is examined under the microscope.
The goal of treatment is to stop the ongoing inflammation and lessen the degree of scarring that ensues. Depending on the diagnosis, there are different treatment strategies. Often the treatment warrants a regimen of immunosuppressive drugs to limit the immune system’s activity. This decreases the degree of inflammation and subsequent irreversible scarring.

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